Pantheon: Italian, Roman
Alternate Names/Spellings:
Gender: Female

Venus is the goddess of sexuality, fertility, charm, bloom, gardens, and love. She may have originally been the goddess of vegetable gardens, fruits, and flowers, but became equated with Aphrodite when the Romans conquered Greece. She is the patron of gardeners. She protects the graves of girls. Venus is the consort of Mars. By the mortal Anchises she had the hero Aeneas. Julius Caesar traced his ancestry back to Venus, and she was the patroness of his gens, the Julians. Venus has many temples in Rome and throughout the Empire. Her sacred stones are amethyst, coral, emerald, lapis lazuli, onyx, pearl, and rose quartz. Girls sacrificed their dolls to Venus when they got married and became women. Venus was honoured during many festivals, including the Vinalia Priora.

In art Venus usually appears as a young, unclothed woman, though she can also appear as a young woman wearing flowing robes. She sometimes wears a turreted crown and carries a sceptre and an olive branch. Venus may also be accompanied by a winged Cupid. Venux Victrix carries a spear and helmet with a sheild leaning nearby.

Alma Venus: "Fostering Venus"
Venus Amica: "Venus the Friend"
Venus Armata: "Armed Venus"
Venus Aurea: "Golden Venus"
Venus Caelestis: "Celestial Venus"
Venus Cloacina / Cluacina: "Venus the Purifier"
Venus Erycina: "Venus of Eryx" -- Had a temple on the Capitoline Hill
Venus Felix: "Favorable Venus" -- bringer of good fortune
Venus Genetrix: "Venus the Universal Mother" -- her festival was held on September 26th
Venus Libertina: "Venus the Freedwoman"
Venus Libitina / Libentia: "Passionate Venus"
Venus Obsequens: "Indulgent Venus"
Venus Verticordia: "Venus the Changer of Hearts" -- her festival, the Veneralia, was held on April 1st
Venus Victrix: "Victorious Venus" -- her festivals were held on August 12th and October 9th

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